Targeted single molecule sequencing methodology for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
Reproduced with permission of BioMed Central. BMC Genomics.
One of the most significant issues surrounding next generation sequencing is the cost and the difficulty assembling short read lengths. Targeted capture enrichment of longer fragments using single molecule sequencing (SMS) is expected to improve both sequence assembly and base-call accuracy but, at present, there are very few examples of successful application of these technologic advances in translational research and clinical testing. We developed a targeted single molecule sequencing (T-SMS) panel for genes implicated in ovarian response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for infertility.
Target enrichment was carried out using droplet-base multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology (RainDance®) designed to yield amplicons averaging 1 kb fragment size from candidate 44 loci (99.8% unique base-pair coverage). The total targeted sequence was 3.18 Mb per sample. SMS was carried out using single molecule, real-time DNA sequencing (SMRT® Pacific Biosciences®), average raw read length = 1178 nucleotides, 5% of the amplicons >6000 nucleotides). After filtering with circular consensus (CCS) reads, the mean read length was 3200 nucleotides (97% CCS accuracy). Primary data analyses, alignment and filtering utilized the Pacific Biosciences® SMRT portal. Secondary analysis was conducted using the Genome Analysis Toolkit for SNP discovery l and wANNOVAR for functional analysis of variants. Filtered functional variants 18 of 19 (94.7%) were further confirmed using conventional Sanger sequencing. CCS reads were able to accurately detect zygosity. Coverage within GC rich regions (i.e.VEGFR; 72% GC rich) was achieved by capturing long genomic DNA (gDNA) fragments and reading into regions that flank the capture regions. As proof of concept, a non-synonymous LHCGR variant captured in two severe OHSS cases, and verified by conventional sequencing.
Combining emulsion PCR-generated 1 kb amplicons and SMRT DNA sequencing permitted greater depth of coverage for T-SMS and facilitated easier sequence assembly. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report combining emulsion PCR and T-SMS for long reads using human DNA samples, and NGS panel designed for biomarker discovery in OHSS.