Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance : official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance







Grant Information

CTSI Funded.


4D flow; Intracardiac flow; Tetralogy of Fallot; Vorticity


BACKGROUND: The global effect of chronic pulmonary regurgitation (PR) on right ventricular (RV) dilation and dysfunction in repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) patients is well studied by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). However, the links between PR in the RV outflow tract (RVOT), RV dysfunction and exercise intolerance are not clarified by conventional measurements. Not all patients with RV dilation share the same intracardiac flow characteristics, now measurable by time resolved three-dimensional phase contrast imaging (4D flow). In our study, we quantified regional vorticity and energy loss in rTOF patients and correlated these parameters with RV dysfunction and exercise capacity.

METHODS: rTOF patients with 4D flow datasets were retrospectively analyzed, including those with transannular/infundibular repair and conduit repair. Normal controls and RV dilation patients with atrial-level shunts (Qp:Qs > 1.2:1) were included for comparison. 4D flow was post-processed using IT Flow (Cardioflow, Japan). Systolic/diastolic vorticity (ω, 1/s) and viscous energy loss (VEL, mW) in the RVOT and RV inflow were measured. To characterize the relative influence of diastolic vorticity in the two regions, an RV Diastolic Vorticity Quotient (ω

RESULTS: 58 rTOF patients, 28 RV dilation patients and 12 controls were included. RV-DVQ, RVOT-VQ, and RVOT-EQ were highest in rTOF patients with severe PR compared to rTOF patients with non-severe PR, RV dilation and controls (p < 0.001). RV-DVQ positively correlated with RV end-diastolic volume (0.683, p < 0.001), PR fraction (0.774, p < 0.001) and negatively with RV ejection fraction (- 0.521, p = 0.003). Both RVOT-VQ, RVOT-EQ negatively correlated with VO

CONCLUSIONS: In rTOF patients, vorticity and energy loss dominate the RVOT compared to tricuspid inflow, correlating with RV dysfunction and exercise intolerance. These 4D flow-based measurements may be sensitive biomarkers to guide surgical management of rTOF patients.


© The Author(s) 2021.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Peer Reviewed


Open Access


Find in your library

Included in

Pediatrics Commons