Cognitive and behavioral disabilities in preterm infants, even without obvious brain injury on conventional neuroimaging, underscores a critical need to identify the subtle underlying microstructural and biochemical derangements. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems undergo rapid maturation during the crucial late gestation and early postnatal life, and are at-risk of disruption after preterm birth. Animal and human autopsy studies provide the bulk of current understanding since non-invasive specialized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (
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Basu, S. K., Pradhan, S., du Plessis, A. J., Ben-Ari, Y., & Limperopoulos, C. (2021). GABA and glutamate in the preterm neonatal brain: In-vivo measurement by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.. NeuroImage, 238 (). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118215