Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of the American Heart Association








BACKGROUND: Cardiac catheterization is the gold standard for assessment and follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). To date, there are limited data about the factors that influence the risk of catastrophic adverse events after catheterization in this population.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective multicenter cohort study was performed to measure risk of catastrophic adverse outcomes after catheterization in children and young adults with PH and identify risk factors for these outcomes. All catheterizations in children and young adults, aged 0 to 21 years, with PH at hospitals submitting data to the IMPACT (Improving Adult and Congenital Treatment) registry between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2015, were studied. Using mixed-effects multivariable regression, we assessed the association between prespecified subject-, procedure-, and center-level covariates and the risk of death, cardiac arrest, or mechanical circulatory support during or after cardiac catheterization. A total of 8111 procedures performed in 7729 subjects at 77 centers were studied. The observed risk of the composite outcome was 1.4%, and the risk of death before discharge was 5.2%. Catheterization in prematurely born neonates and nonpremature infants was associated with increased risk of catastrophic adverse event, as was precatheterization treatment with inotropes and lower systemic arterial saturation. Secondary analyses demonstrated the following: (1) increasing volumes of catheterization in patients with PH were associated with reduced risk of composite outcome (odds ratio, 0.8 per 10 procedures;

CONCLUSIONS: Young patients with PH are a high-risk population for diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterization. Hospital experience with PH is associated with reduced risk, independent of total catheterization case volume.


Reproduced with permission of the American Heart Association. JAHA

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Peer Reviewed


Open Access