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The incidence of pre-diabetes (PD) and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) is a worldwide epidemic. African American (AA) individuals are disproportionately more likely to become diabetic than other ethnic groups. Over the long-term, metabolic complications related to diabetes result in significant alterations in growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Considering the limited exercise-related studies in the area of gene expression changes with disease progression, the objective of this study was to examine differences in exercise-induced gene expression related to the GH and IGF-1 pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy (CON) and PD AA individuals. Design: Ten subjects [5 PD (age = 35±9.3 yr, BMI = 32.1±4.0, FBG = 101.8±1.3 mg/dl) and 5 CON (age = 31±9.4 yr, BMI = 29.4±5.2, FBG = 82.8±9.7 mg/dl)] had blood drawn for RNA isolation prior to exercise (Pre), immediately following acute moderate intensity exercise on a treadmill (Post-1), 6-hours post (Post-6), and 24-hours post (Post-24). Isolation of mRNA from PBMCs was performed using ficoll separation, while the profiling of mRNA expression was performed using Illumina beadchip arrays with standard protocols. Scan results were statistically analyzed for a specific list of genes related to GH and IGF-1. GH and IGF-1 protein levels were also assessed in each sample. To address issues of normality, all GH and IGF-1 data were log-transformed prior to analysis. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Group differences for GH2 variant 2 (p = 0.070) and GH2 variant 3 (p = 0.059) were coupled with significant alterations in IGF-1 mRNA over time (p = 0.024). A significant interaction between group and time was observed for GHRH mRNA (p = 0.008). No group differences were observed in GH AUC (p = 0.649), ΔGH (p = 0.331), GHrec (p = 0.294), or IGF-1 AUC (p = 0.865), representing a similar exercise-induced GH and IGF-1 response for both groups. Conclusions: Analysis of GH and IGF-1 related-gene expression indicates that mild elevations in fasting blood glucose and exercise-induced alterations in gene expression are impacted by the prediabetic state. © 2018 Berry et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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