Document Type

Journal Article

Study Type

Case Report

Publication Date



HeartRhythm Case Reports




Patients with congenital heart disease are at ongoing risk of developing both bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias decades after surgical repair. Rarely, arrhythmias can be exacerbated during pregnancy and require emergent intervention. Here, we report unique experience with nonfluoroscopic pacemaker implantation during pregnancy. Ionizing radiation, even in low doses, is associated with an increased risk of malignancy, and a fetus may be at particularly increased risk.1, 2 Over the past 2 decades, the use of fluoroscopy in cardiac ablation procedures has become nearly obsolete with the development of 3-dimensional (3D) electroanatomic mapping software such as CARTO (Biosense-Webster, Diamond Bar, CA) and NavX or EnSite (St. Jude Medical, Inc., St. Paul, MN).3 However, certain procedures, such as device implants, still commonly use fluoroscopy in most instances.2 Fluoroscopy use in patients with congenital heart disease is of utmost concern because of cumulative radiation exposure from multiple lifetime catheterization, radiographic and computed tomography imaging, and electrophysiological procedures.


Reproduced with permission of Elsevier B.V. HeartRhythm Case Reports

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Peer Reviewed


Open Access