Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Compared to developed countries, the use of antimicrobials in Egypt is less regulated and is available over the counter without the need for prescriptions. The impact of such policy on antimicrobial resistance has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of early and late onset sepsis, and the frequency of antimicrobial resistance in a major referral neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
The study included all neonates admitted to the NICU over a 12-month period. Prospectively collected clinical and laboratory data were retrieved, including blood cultures and endotracheal aspirate cultures if performed.
A total of 953 neonates were admitted, of them 314 neonates were diagnosed with sepsis; 123 with early onset sepsis (EOS) and 191 with late onset sepsis (LOS). A total of 388 blood cultures were obtained, with 166 positive results. Total endotracheal aspirate samples were 127; of them 79 were culture-positive. The most frequently isolated organisms in blood were Klebsiella pneumoniae (42%) and Coagulase negative staphylococcus (19%) whereas in endotracheal cultures were Klebsiella pneumoniae (41%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19%). Gram negative organisms were most resistant to ampicillins (100%), cephalosporins (93%–100%) and piperacillin-tazobactam (99%) with less resistance to aminoglycosides (36%–52%). Gram positive isolates were least resistant to vancomycin (18%). Multidrug resistance was detected in 92 (38%) cultures, mainly among gram negative isolates (78/92).
Antibiotic resistance constitutes a challenge to the management of neonatal sepsis in Egypt. Resistance was predominant in both early and late onset sepsis. This study supports the need to implement policies that prohibits the non-prescription community use of antibiotics.
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Mohnsen, L., Ramy, N., Saied, D., Akmal, D., Salama, N., Abdel Haleim, M., & Aly, H. (2017). Emerging antimicrobial resistance in early and late-onset neonatal sepsis. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 6 (). http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13756-017-0225-9