Peroxynitrite is a critical mediator of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in murine livers: Protection by glutathione
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Acetaminophen (AAP) overdose causes formation of nitrotyrosine, a footprint of peroxynitrite, in centrilobular hepatocytes. The importance of peroxynitrite for the pathophysiology, however, is unclear. C3Heb/FeJ mice were treated with 300 mg/kg AAP. To accelerate the restoration of hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels as potential endogenous scavengers of peroxynitrite, some groups of animals received 200 mg of GSH/kg i.v. at different time points after AAP. AAP induced severe liver cell damage at 6 h. Total liver and mitochondrial glutathione levels decreased by >90% at 1 h but recovered to 75 and 45%, respectively, of untreated values at 6 h after AAP. In addition, the hepatic and mitochondrial glutathione disulfide (GSSG) content was significantly increased over baseline, suggesting a mitochondrial oxidant stress. Moreover, centrilobular hepatocytes stained for nitrotyrosine. Treatment with GSH at t = 0 restored hepatic GSH levels and completely prevented the mitochondrial oxidant stress, peroxynitrite formation, and liver cell injury. In contrast, treatment at 1.5 and 2.25 h restored hepatic and mitochondrial GSH levels but did not prevent the increase in GSSG formation. Nitrotyrosine adduct formation and liver injury, however, was substantially reduced. GSH treatment at 3 h after AAP was ineffective. Similar results were obtained when these experiments were repeated with glutathione peroxidase-deficient animals. Our data suggest that early GSH treatment (t = 0) prevented cell injury by improving the detoxification of the reactive metabolite of AAP. Delayed GSH treatment enhanced hepatic GSH levels, which scavenged peroxynitrite in a spontaneous reaction. Thus, peroxynitrite is an important mediator of AAP-induced liver cell necrosis.
Knight, T., Ho, Y., Farhood, A., & Jaeschke, H. (2002). Peroxynitrite is a critical mediator of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in murine livers: Protection by glutathione. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 303 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.102.038968