cDNA microarray profiling of rat mammary gland carcinomas induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

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cDNA microarray analysis was used to examine gene expression profiles in normal female Sprague-Dawley rat mammary gland and in carcinomas induced by the cooked meat-derived carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and the potent experimental carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Nine tubulopapillary carcinomas (five from PhIP-treated rats and four from DMBA-treated rats) and normal mammary gland from virgin, pregnant and lactating rats were examined on a rat 6.9k cDNA microarray. Although histologically identical, PhIP- and DMBA-induced carcinomas could be distinguished by hierarchical clustering and multi-dimensional scaling analyses of cDNA expression. In addition, the expression of 21 clones was statistically different between PhIP- and DMBA-induced carcinomas (F-test, P < 0.05). The data indicate that distinct chemical carcinogens induce unique gene expression patterns in mammary gland carcinomas. The specific chemical carcinogen-associated cDNA array profiles found in carcinomas may ultimately be applicable to better understanding cancer etiology. PhIP- and DMBA-induced carcinomas also shared similarities in cDNA expression profiles. By comparing the expression in carcinomas (PhIP plus DMBA induced) with normal rat mammary gland (at any stage of differentiation), 172 clones were found to be differentially expressed. Genes showing increased expression in carcinomas by cDNA microarray analysis (and further validated by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis) include cyclin D1, PDGF-A chain, retinol binding protein 1, prohibitin and the transcription factor STAT5A. The similarities in gene expression between PhIP- and DMBA-induced carcinomas raise the possibility that several molecular pathways for rat mammary gland transformation are maintained irrespective of the carcinogenic initiating agent.

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