Denosumab in patients with giant-cell tumour of bone: an open-label, phase 2 study
The Lancet Oncology
Background: Giant-cell tumour (GCT) of bone is a primary osteolytic bone tumour with low metastatic potential and is associated with substantial skeletal morbidity. GCT is rich in osteoclast-like giant cells and contains mononuclear (stromal) cells that express RANK ligand (RANKL), a key mediator of osteoclast activation. We investigated the potential therapeutic effect of denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL, on tumour-cell survival and growth in patients with GCT. Methods: In this open-label, single-group study, 37 patients with recurrent or unresectable GCT were enrolled and received subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg monthly (every 28 days), with loading doses on days 8 and 15 of month 1. The primary endpoint was tumour response, defined as elimination of at least 90% of giant cells or no radiological progression of the target lesion up to week 25. Study recruitment is closed; patient treatment and follow-up are ongoing. The study is registered with Clinical Trials.gov, NCT00396279. Findings: Two patients had insufficient histology or radiology data for efficacy assessment. 30 of 35 (86%; 95% CI 70-95) of evaluable patients had a tumour response: 20 of 20 assessed by histology and 10 of 15 assessed by radiology. Adverse events were reported in 33 of 37 patients; the most common being pain in an extremity (n=7), back pain (n=4), and headache (n=4). Five patients had grade 3-5 adverse events, only one of which (grade 3 increase in human chorionic gonadotropin concentration not related to pregnancy) was deemed to be possibly treatment related. Five serious adverse events were reported although none were deemed treatment related. Interpretation: Further investigation of denosumab as a therapy for GCT is warranted. Funding: Amgen, Inc. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomas, D., Henshaw, R., Skubitz, K., Chawla, S., Staddon, A., Blay, J., Roudier, M., Smith, J., Ye, Z., Sohn, W., Dansey, R., & Jun, S. (2010). Denosumab in patients with giant-cell tumour of bone: an open-label, phase 2 study. The Lancet Oncology, 11 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(10)70010-3