Ophthalmic Issues in Chronic Kidney Disease

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Chronic Renal Disease




Autoimmune diseases; Diabetes; Genetic diseases; Hypertension; Ophthalmic and chronic kidney disease associations


Ophthalmic pathology and kidney diseases are intricately linked. Patients with CKD encounter well-known ophthalmic diseases such as retinopathy at a rate that exceeds the general population, particularly those with diabetic kidney disease. Furthermore, ophthalmic disease in patients with CKD tends to manifest with greater severity compared to those with normal kidney function. Beyond diabetes, there are a host of inherited and acquired diseases with both kidney and ophthalmic phenotypes. Often, a thorough ophthalmic evaluation can solidify or unify a diagnosis in a timely fashion and may even prevent unnecessary invasive procedures. Given the complexity and severity of these diseases, it appears prudent to involve the care of ophthalmology in the care of many more CKD patients, extending beyond the relationship ophthalmologists already have with diabetic patients. Future studies are clearly needed to better define the relationship and treatment of ophthalmic complications in the setting of CKD.