Document Type


Publication Date



Hookworm; Na-GST-1; Adjuvant; TLR-4; GLA


More than 740 million people worldwide are infected with Hookworm. Hookworm infection is most prevalent in the poorest of the poor populations of the world, and has serious health effects. Hookworm infection causes blood loss leading to iron deficiency anemia and protein energy malnutrition, which results in a compromised immune response. Consequently, the target human population suffers from an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases including hookworm infection. We have developed recombinant adult hookworm vaccines against hookworm infection to break this vicious cycle. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist are known to boost immune response in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. We believe that co-injecting Synthetic Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant (GLA) a novel TLR-4 agonist with adult hookworm Na-GST-1 + Alhydrogel® vaccine will produce a robust and sustainable immune response in this target human population. Here, we discuss the rationale of using GLA, study designs and the results of the pre-clinical immunogenicity studies of the Human Hookworm Na-GST-1 + Alhydrogel® Vaccine in BALB/c mice with and without GLA. We conclude that, GLA enhanced the immunogenicity of co-administered adult hookworm Na-GST-1 + Alhydrogel® vaccine, producing a strong anti-Na-GST-1 IgG response. These preclinical results lay the foundation of co-administrating GLA with adult hookworm Na-GST-1 + Alhydrogel® vaccine in Phase 1 clinical trial in Brazil.


Presented at: 5th Vaccine Congress, 2-4 October 2011, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Peer Reviewed


Open Access




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.