Prevalence and trends in transmitted and acquired antiretroviral drug resistance, Washington, DC, 1999-2014

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



BMC Research Notes








Acquired drug resistance; Antiretroviral therapy; Cumulative drug resistance; DC; Drug resistance; HIV; Prevalence; Transmitted drug resistance; Washington


© 2017 The Author(s). Background: Drug resistance limits options for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and results in poorer health outcomes among HIV-infected persons. We sought to characterize resistance patterns and to identify predictors of resistance in Washington, DC. Methods: We analyzed resistance in the DC Cohort, a longitudinal study of HIV-infected persons in care in Washington, DC. We measured cumulative drug resistance (CDR) among participants with any genotype between 1999 and 2014 (n = 3411), transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in ART-naïve persons (n = 1503), and acquired drug resistance (ADR) in persons with genotypes before and after ART initiation (n = 309). Using logistic regression, we assessed associations between patient characteristics and transmitted resistance to any antiretroviral. Results: Prevalence of TDR was 20.5%, of ADR 40.5%, and of CDR 45.1% in the respective analysis groups. From 2004 to 2013, TDR prevalence decreased for nucleoside and nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (15.0 to 5.5%; p = 0.0003) and increased for integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) (0.0-1.4%; p = 0.04). In multivariable analysis, TDR was not associated with age, race/ethnicity, HIV risk group, or years from HIV diagnosis. Conclusions: In this urban cohort of HIV-infected persons, almost half of participants tested had evidence of CDR; and resistance to INSTIs was increasing. If this trend continues, inclusion of the integrase-encoding region in baseline genotype testing should be strongly considered.