Acute kidney injury in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Current Opinion in Critical Care
Acute kidney injury; Epidemiology; Human immunodeficiency virus
Purpose of review To present an overview of the epidemiology and etiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recent findings HIV-infected patients are at an increased risk of developing AKI. Potential risk factors for the development of AKI in this patient population include increased HIV viral loads, reduced CD4 cell counts, hepatitis C virus coinfection, a history of diabetes, black race, male gender, and baseline chronic kidney and hepatic disease. Observational studies have found an increased morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients who develop AKI. There are diverse etiologies of AKI in HIV-infected patients, with increasing reports of highly active antiretroviral therapy-related nephropathy secondary to tenofovir nephrotoxicity. There have also been recent case reports of HIV-infected patients who develop a unique form of acute interstitial nephritis secondary to diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. Summary There are a variety of etiologies of AKI in HIV-infected patients. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of AKI is critical to help prevent morbidity and mortality in this patient population. © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health|Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Cohen, S., Chawla, L., & Kimmel, P. (2008). Acute kidney injury in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Current Opinion in Critical Care, 14 (6). http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0b013e3283186f43