Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections
Medical Clinics of North America
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic has led to greater understanding and respect for the pathogenic potential of non- tuberculous mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) has emerged as the most common systemic bacterial infection in AIDS, causing debilitating disseminated disease in late-stage HlV-infected patients. With the release of the macrolide antibiotics, clarithromycin and azithromycin, effective and well-tolerated therapeutic regimens for MAC have been developed which prolong survival and increase quality of life. The macrolides and rifabutin are also effective as preventive therapy for MAC in patients with AIDS. Mycobacterium kansasii, which causes pulmonary disease similar to tuberculosis as well as disseminated disease in AIDS, is treatable with isoniazid, rifampin and ethambutol. Clinical syndromes and therapeutic options for other non- tuberculous mycobacteria in AIDS are also reviewed.
French, A., Benator, D., & Gordin, F. (1997). Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. Medical Clinics of North America, 81 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-7125(05)70522-8