Snx-pxa-rgs-pxc subfamily of snxs in the regulation of receptor-mediated signaling and membrane trafficking

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



International Journal of Molecular Sciences








Endosome; GPCR; Receptor; RGS; Signaling; SNX; Trafficking


© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. The SNX-PXA-RGS-PXC subfamily of sorting nexins (SNXs) belongs to the superfamily of SNX proteins. SNXs are characterized by the presence of a common phox-homology (PX) do-main, along with other functional domains that play versatile roles in cellular signaling and membrane trafficking. In addition to the PX domain, the SNX-PXA-RGS-PXC subfamily, except for SNX19, contains a unique RGS (regulators of G protein signaling) domain that serves as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), which accelerates GTP hydrolysis on the G protein α subunit, resulting in termination of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Moreover, the PX domain selec-tively interacts with phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate and other phosphoinositides found in en-dosomal membranes, while also associating with various intracellular proteins. Although SNX19 lacks an RGS domain, all members of the SNX-PXA-RGS-PXC subfamily serve as dual regulators of receptor cargo signaling and endosomal trafficking. This review discusses the known and proposed functions of the SNX-PXA-RGS-PXC subfamily and how it participates in receptor signaling (both GPCR and non-GPCR) and endosomal-based membrane trafficking. Furthermore, we discuss the difference of this subfamily of SNXs from other subfamilies, such as SNX-BAR nexins (Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs) that are associated with retromer or other retrieval complexes for the regulation of receptor signaling and membrane trafficking. Emerging evidence has shown that the dysregulation and malfunction of this subfamily of sorting nexins lead to various pathophysio-logical processes and disorders, including hypertension.