Article ID 210686
Antineoplastic Agents--pharmacology; Antineoplastic Agents--therapeutic use; Bone Neoplasms--drug therapy; Bone Neoplasms--secondary; Bone and Bones--drug effects; Prostatic Neoplasms--drug therapy; Prostatic Neoplasms--pathology
Majority of patients with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) develop bone metastases which results in significant morbidity and mortality as a result of skeletal-related events (SREs). Several bone-targeted agents are either in clinical use or in development for prevention of SREs. Bisphosphonates were the first class of drugs investigated for prevention of SREs and zoledronic acid is the only bisphosphonate that is FDA-approved for this indication. Another bone-targeted agent is denosumab which is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the RANK-L thereby inhibiting RANK-L mediated bone resorption. While several radiopharmaceuticals were approved for pain palliation in mCRPC including strontium and samarium, alpharadin is the first radiopharmaceutical to show significant overall survival benefit. Contemporary therapeutic options including enzalutamide and abiraterone have effects on pain palliation and SREs as well. Other novel bone-targeted agents are currently in development, including the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors cabozantinib and dasatinib. Emerging therapeutics in mCRPC has resulted in great strides in preventing one of the most significant sources of complications of bone metastases.
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El-Amm, J., Freeman, A., Patel, N., Aragon-Ching, J.B. (2013). Bone-targeted therapies in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: Evolving paradigms. Prostate Cancer, 210686.