Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Bulletin Series
Cholera, History, Iran, Water
This paper explores why Iran was a particularly fertile ground for repeated visitation of cholera in the 19th century. Along with certain unique Iranian cultural and religious factors, the author demonstrates how Iranian urban ecology, particularly the qanat system, contributed to the fatal spread of the epidemic. These multi-faceted conditions, the author concludes, resulted in distinct modes of disease transmission and mortality in Iran.
Afkhami, A. A. (1998). Disease and Water Supply: The Case of Cholera in 19th Century Iran. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Bulletin Series, 103 (). Retrieved from https://hsrc.himmelfarb.gwu.edu/smhs_medicine_facpubs/1377