Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Emergency Medicine International

Inclusive Pages

Article ID 6983750




The American Heart Association reports the annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests (OHCA) is greater than 300,000 with a survival rate of 9.5%. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) saves one life for every 30, with a 10% decrease in survival associated with every minute of delay in CPR initiation. Bystander CPR and training vary widely by region. We conducted a retrospective study of 320 persons who suffered OHCA in South Florida over 25 months. Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with increasing income (p = 0.05), with a stronger disparity between low- and high-income neighborhoods (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03, resp.). Survival with bystander CPR was statistically greater in white- versus black-predominant neighborhoods (p = 0.04). Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with high- versus low-education neighborhoods (p = 0.03). Neighborhoods with more high school age persons displayed the lowest survival. We discovered a significant disparity in OHCA survival within neighborhoods of low-income, black-predominance, and low-education. Reduced survival was seen in neighborhoods with larger populations of high school students. This group is a potential target for training, and instruction can conceivably change survival outcomes in these neighborhoods, closing the gap, thus improving survival for all.


Reproduced with permission of Hindawi Publishing Corp. Emergency Medicine International.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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Open Access