Rhinitis prevalence and association with atopic dermatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology








Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) and rhinitis are common atopic diseases that may co-occur owing to an overlap in pathophysiology. Although most cases of both diseases are mild and managed with topical anti-inflammatory medicaments, the advent of new systemic and biologic treatments targeting type 2 inflammation in both diseases warrants further insight in the exact overlap of AD and rhinitis. Objective: To determine the association between AD and rhinitis. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the databases PubMed, Embase, and CNKI were performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Pooled prevalence and pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Results: The search resulted in 10,422 citations, and 341 and 302 articles were included in the qualitative and quantitative analyses, respectively. The pooled prevalence of rhinitis was 40.5% (95% CI 39.0-42.0) in patients with AD and 18.0% (95% CI 16.7-19.2) in the reference individuals without AD. The pooled prevalence of having both rhinitis and asthma was 14.2% (95% CI 13.0-15.5) in patients with AD. There was an association between AD and rhinitis (OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.83-3.18), allergic rhinitis (OR 3.25, 95% CI 2.26-4.66), and nonallergic rhinitis (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.39-2.86), respectively. Conclusion: Rhinitis, both allergic and nonallergic forms, is very common in patients with AD. Future investigations should clarify how medications targeting both diseases should be indicated in these patients.