Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



AIMA Annual Symposium Proceedings

Inclusive Pages



Supplementing patient education content with pictographs can improve the comprehension and recall of information, especially patients with low health literacy. Pictograph design and testing, however, are costly and time consuming.

We created a Web-based game, Doodle Health, for crowdsourcing the drawing and validation of pictographs. The objective of this pilot study was to test the usability of the game and its appeal to healthcare consumers. The chief purpose of the game is to involve a diverse population in the co-design and evaluation of pictographs.

We conducted a community-based focus group to inform the game design. Game designers, health sciences librarians, informatics researchers, clinicians, and community members participated in two Design Box meetings. The results of the meetings were used to create the Doodle Health crowdsourcing game. The game was presented and tested at two public fairs.

Initial testing indicates crowdsourcing is a promising approach to pictograph development and testing for relevancy and comprehension. Over 596 drawings were collected and 1,758 guesses were performed to date with 70-90% accuracies, which are satisfactorily high.


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Open Access