Document Type


Date of Degree


Primary Advisor

Gaetano R. Lotrecchiano, EdD, PhD


Background: Precision medicine is a promising approach to healthcare that can improve the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of various health conditions. However, its implementation into clinical practice is complex and requires effective collaboration among multiple stakeholders. Unfortunately, the current state of stakeholder collaboration in precision medicine is poorly understood.

Objective: This study explored stakeholder collaboration in precision medicine to identify barriers and facilitators and propose recommendations for effective collaboration.

Study participants: The study recruited thirty-eight individuals involved in precision medicine, including providers, patients or guardians, administrative personnel, and researchers from multiple healthcare organizations, mainly in the mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the US.

Methods: The study used an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design to collect quantitative (survey) data on stakeholder collaboration and motivation, followed by semi-structured qualitative interviews to understand stakeholder perspectives on collaboration. Emerging themes of collaboration were developed from the qualitative results and used to explain the quantitative findings of how stakeholders collaborate in precision medicine.

Results: Multiple stakeholders are collaborating in precision medicine and are driven by various motivators to collaborate. Collaboration is low and heterogeneous, occurring at high levels among stakeholders from similar disciplinary backgrounds but generally low across disciplines. Individual (e.g., motivations and expertise) and team level (e.g., proximity, communication, and adaptability) factors and effective outcomes facilitate collaboration. However, organizational and system-wide factors, such as limited resources, reimbursement challenges, and restrictive policies, hinder collaboration. Additionally, the complexity of precision medicine can result in different partnerships driven by the context of each collaboration.

Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that multiple stakeholders are collaborating in precision medicine. However, they face various barriers that make their interactions difficult. Although teams develop facilitators to overcome some of these barriers, more work needs to be done to improve collaboration outcomes.


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Open Access


Available for download on Friday, April 24, 2026

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