Thrombosis at hospital presentation in patients with and without coronavirus disease 2019

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders




Biomarkers; Coronavirus; COVID-19; Embolism; Ischemic stroke; Thrombosis


© 2020 Society for Vascular Surgery Objective: In the present study, we sought to better characterize the patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) most at risk of severe, outpatient thrombosis by defining the patients hospitalized with COVID-19 with arterial or venous thrombosis diagnosed at admission. Methods: We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis of COVID-19 patients. We found a shift in the proportions of thrombosis subtypes from 2019 to 2020, with declines in ST-segment myocardial infarction (from 22.0% to 10.1% of thrombotic events) and stroke (from 48.6% to 37.2%) and an increase in venous thromboembolism (from 29.4% to 52.7%). The patients with COVID-19–associated thrombosis were younger (age, 58 years vs 64 years; P =.043) and were less frequently women (31.3% vs 43.9%; P =.16). However, no differences were found in the body mass index or major comorbidities between those with and without COVID-19. COVID-19–associated thrombosis correlated with greater mortality (15.2% vs 4.3%; P =.016). The biometric profile of patients admitted with COVID-19–associated thrombosis compared with regular thrombosis showed significant changes in the complete blood count, liver function test results, D-dimer levels, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and coagulation panels. Conclusions: Outpatients with COVID-19 who developed thrombosis requiring hospitalization had increased mortality compared with outpatients without COVID-19 who developed thrombosis requiring hospitalization. Given the significantly higher inflammatory marker levels, it is possible this is related to different mechanisms of thrombotic disease in these patients. The inflammation could be a therapeutic target to reduce the risk, or aid in the treatment, of thrombosis. We call for more studies elucidating the role that immunothrombosis might be playing in patients with COVID-19.