Healthcare resource utilization and costs of rivaroxaban versus warfarin among non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients with obesity in a US population

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of Medical Economics








healthcare costs; healthcare resource utilization; Non-valvular atrial fibrillation; obesity; real-world; risk factor; rivaroxaban; warfarin


Aim: To assess the real-world healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and costs of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and obesity newly initiated on rivaroxaban or warfarin in the US. Methods: This retrospective study used IQVIA PharMetrics Plus data (01/2010–09/2019) to evaluate patients (≥18 years) with NVAF and obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) initiated on rivaroxaban or warfarin (on or after 01/2013). Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to adjust for confounding between cohorts. HRU and costs were assessed post-treatment initiation. Weighted cohorts were compared using Poisson regression models and cost differences, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values generated using non-parametric bootstrap procedures. Results: After IPTW, 10,555 and 5,080 patients were initiated on rivaroxaban and warfarin, respectively (mean age: 59 years). At 12 months follow-up, the rivaroxaban cohort had lower all-cause HRU, including fewer hospitalizations (rate ratio [RR]: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.87), emergency room visits (RR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.97), and outpatient visits (RR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.77; all p <.05). Medical costs were also reduced in the rivaroxaban cohort (mean difference: −$6,759, 95% CI: −$9,814, −$3,311) due to reduced hospitalization costs (mean difference: −$5,967, 95% CI: −$8,721, −$3,327), resulting in lower total all-cause healthcare costs compared to the warfarin cohort (mean difference: −$4,579, 95% CI: −$7,609, −$1,052; all p <.05). The rivaroxaban cohort also had lower NVAF-related HRU and medical costs driven by lower hospitalization at 12 months post-treatment initiation. HRU and cost reductions associated with rivaroxaban persisted up to 36 months of follow-up. Limitations: Claims data may have contained inaccuracies and obesity was classified based on ICD diagnosis codes given that patient BMI values were not available. Conclusions: Rivaroxaban was associated with reduced HRU and costs compared to warfarin among NVAF patients with obesity in a real-world US setting.