Platelet factor-4 concentration in adult veno-arterial ECMO patients
Perfusion (United Kingdom)
ECMO; heparin; HIT; platelet factor-4; thrombosis
Background: Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is reported at a variable rate in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients. A critical factor impacting platelet factor-4 (PF4)-heparin antibody formation is plasma PF4 concentration. We hypothesized that PF4 concentration would be increased during veno-arterial (VA) ECMO. Methods: Plasma PF4 concentration was measured during the first 5 ECMO days in 20 VA ECMO patients and 10 control plasma samples. PF4-heparin ratios were estimated using an assumed heparin concentration of 0.4 IU/mL. This correlates with an activated partial thromboplastin time of 60 to 80 seconds, which is the anticoagulation target in our center. Results: Twenty VA ECMO patients were enrolled, 10 of which had pulmonary embolism. Median PF4 concentration was 0.03 µg/mL [0.01, 0.13] in control plasma. Median PF4 concentration was 0.21 µg/mL [0.12, 0.34] on ECMO day 1 or 2, 0.16 µg/mL [0.09, 0.25] on ECMO day 3, and 0.12 µg/mL [0.09, 0.22] on ECMO day 5. Estimated median PF4-heparin ratios were 0.04, 0.03, and 0.02 respectively. Two patients (10%) developed HIT that was confirmed by serotonin release assay. PF4 concentration did not differ significantly in these patients compared to non-HIT patients (p = 0.37). No patient had an estimated PF4-heparin ratio between 0.7 and 1.4, which is the reported optimal range for PF4-heparin antibody formation. Conclusion: Our data suggest that PF4 concentration is mildly elevated during VA ECMO compared to control plasma. Estimated PF4-heparin ratios were not optimal for HIT antibody formation. These data support epidemiologic studies where HIT incidence is low during VA ECMO.
Mazzeffi, M., Clark, M., Grazioli, A., Dugan, C., Rector, R., Dalton, H., Madathil, R., Menaker, J., Herr, D., & Tanaka, K. (2020). Platelet factor-4 concentration in adult veno-arterial ECMO patients. Perfusion (United Kingdom), (). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267659120965104