Title

Sleep Disturbances, Circadian Activity and Nocturnal Light Exposure Characterize High Risk for and Current Depression in Adolescence

Authors

André Comiran Tonon, Laboratório de Cronobiologia e Sono, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil.
Débora Barroggi Constantino, Laboratório de Cronobiologia e Sono, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil.
Guilherme Rodriguez Amando, Laboratório de Cronobiologia e Sono, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil.
Ana Carolina Abreu, Laboratório de Cronobiologia e Sono, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil.
Ana Paula Francisco, Laboratório de Cronobiologia e Sono, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil.
Melissa Alves de Oliveira, Laboratório de Cronobiologia e Sono, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil.
Luísa K. Pilz, Laboratório de Cronobiologia e Sono, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil.
Nicóli Bertuol Xavier, Laboratório de Cronobiologia e Sono, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil.
Fernanda Rohrsetzer, Graduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil.
Laila Souza, Departament of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Jader Piccin, Departament of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Arthur Caye, Departament of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Sandra Petresco, Departament of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Pedro H. Manfro, Graduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil.
Rivka Pereira, Departament of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Thaís Martini, Graduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil.
Brandon A. Kohrt, Division of Global Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.
Helen L. Fisher, King's College London, Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, London, UK.
Valeria Mondelli, King's College London, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, London, UK.
Christian Kieling, Graduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil.
Maria Paz Hidalgo, Laboratório de Cronobiologia e Sono, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil.

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

5-6-2022

Journal

Sleep

DOI

10.1093/sleep/zsac104

Keywords

Actigraphy; Actimetry; Adolescents; Biological Rhythms; Chronobiology; Depression; Mood; Psychiatry; Sleep Hygiene; Youth

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in adolescence is associated with irregularities in circadian rhythms and sleep. The characterization of such impairment may be critical to design effective interventions to prevent development of depression among adolescents. This study aimed to examine self-reported and actimetry-based circadian rhythms and sleep-wake behavior associated with current MDD and high-risk for MDD among adolescents. METHODS: Ninety-six adolescents who took part in the IDEA-RiSCo study were recruited using an empirically-developed depression-risk stratification method: 26 classified as low-risk (LR), 31 as high-risk (HR), and 39 as a current depressive episode (MDD). We collected self-report data on insomnia, chronotype, sleep schedule, sleep hygiene as well as objective data on sleep, rest-activity and light exposure rhythms using actimetry for 10 days. RESULTS: Adolescents with MDD exhibited more severe insomnia, shorter sleep duration, higher social jetlag (SJL), lower relative amplitude (RA) of activity and higher exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) compared to the other groups. They also presented poorer sleep hygiene compared to the LR group. The HR group also showed higher insomnia, lower RA, higher exposure to ALAN and higher SJL compared to the LR group. CONCLUSIONS: High-risk adolescents shared sleep and rhythm alterations with the MDD group, which may constitute early signs of depression, suggesting that preventive strategies targeting sleep should be examined in future studies. Furthermore, we highlight that actimetry-based parameters of motor activity (particularly RA) and light exposure are promising constructs to be explored as tools for assessment of depression in adolescence. .

Department

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

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