Title

Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: An Update on Preclinical Models, Clinical Biomarkers, and the Implications of Cerebrovascular Dysfunction

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

1-1-2022

Journal

Journal of central nervous system disease

Volume

14

DOI

10.1177/11795735221098125

Keywords

biomarkers; gut-brain axis; pediatric traumatic brain injury; research models; traumatic brain injury; vascular dysfunction

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality. Recent studies suggest that children and adolescents have worse post-TBI outcomes and take longer to recover than adults. However, the pathophysiology and progression of TBI in the pediatric population are studied to a far lesser extent compared to the adult population. Common causes of TBI in children are falls, sports/recreation-related injuries, non-accidental trauma, and motor vehicle-related injuries. A fundamental understanding of TBI pathophysiology is crucial in preventing long-term brain injury sequelae. Animal models of TBI have played an essential role in addressing the knowledge gaps relating to pTBI pathophysiology. Moreover, a better understanding of clinical biomarkers is crucial to diagnose pTBI and accurately predict long-term outcomes. This review examines the current preclinical models of pTBI, the implications of pTBI on the brain's vasculature, and clinical pTBI biomarkers. Finally, we conclude the review by speculating on the emerging role of the gut-brain axis in pTBI pathophysiology.

Department

Neurological Surgery

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