Incidence, Mortality, and Treatment Patterns of Synchronous Lower Genital Tract Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of lower genital tract disease




OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to define the incidence, prognosis, and treatment patterns associated with synchronous lower genital tract squamous cell carcinoma (LGTSCC) among women diagnosed with any LGTSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database patients diagnosed with synchronous cervical, vaginal, vulvar, and/or anal SCC from 2000 to 2016 were included. Incidence and mortality were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify treatment patterns, risk factors, and mortality associated with LGTSCC. RESULTS: Among 15,424 women with LGTSCC, 138 had synchronous LGTSCC (0.89%). Vulvar and vaginal SCC was the most common combination (49.3%), and cervical with anal SCC was the least common (1.4%). Only one patient had 3 or more primary LGTSCC. Synchronous LGTSCC was independently associated with higher mortality compared with single-site LGTSCC (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR] = 1.67; p < .001). Synchronous LGTSCC was significantly associated with older age (63 vs. 58 years, p < .001) and lower stage (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.38; p < .001) and grade of disease (aOR = 0.32; p < .001). Patients with synchronous LGTSCC were more likely to receive radiation (aOR = 1.74; p = .005) and were more likely to receive adjuvant radiation after primary surgical resection compared with single-site LGTSCC (aOR = 1.88; p = .007). Receipt of any treatment including radiation (aHR = 0.85; p < .001), chemotherapy (aHR = 0.50; p < .001), and surgery (aHR = 0.70; p < .001) was independently associated with decreased mortality hazard. CONCLUSIONS: Synchronous LGTSCC is rare but is associated with increased mortality and higher rates of adjuvant radiation compared with single-site LGTSCC despite lower stage and grade at diagnosis. More research is needed to define optimal therapy for these patients.