Cumulative average nut consumption in relation to lower incidence of hypertension: a prospective cohort study of 10,347 adults

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



European Journal of Nutrition




Cumulative average nut consumption; Hypertension incidence; Nut; Peanut; Prospective cohort study


Purpose: Maintaining optimal blood pressure (BP) levels can be an effective preventive strategy for reducing disease burden. Nut consumption may play a preventive role against hypertension, which is a lifelong condition. We aimed to prospectively examine the association between cumulative average nut consumption and the incidence of hypertension in Korean adults aged 40 years and older. Methods: A total of 10,347 participants who were free of hypertension at baseline, were included. Hypertension was defined as having a physician diagnosis and taking antihypertensive medications or having abnormal BP (systolic ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic ≥ 90 mmHg). As an exposure, cumulative average nut consumption was calculated using repeated food-frequency questionnaires (mean: 2.1). We used a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator to estimate the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for hypertension. Results: We identified 2047 incident cases of hypertension during 44,614 person-years of follow-up. Among both men and women, an average nut consumption of ≥ 1 serving/week (15 g/week]) was inversely associated with hypertension incidence (IRR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58–0.96, p for trend = 0.013 for men; IRR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.59–0.88, p for trend = 0.002 for women) and these significant associations were consistently observed across the strata of potential confounders. Conclusion: An average consumption of at least one serving (15 g) per week of peanuts, almonds, and/or pine nuts may be inversely associated with the risk of hypertension among Korean adults aged 40 years and older, in a dose–response manner.