Coverage, inequity and predictors of hepatitis B birth vaccination in Myanmar from 2011-2016: results from a national survey

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



BMC health services research








Hepatitis B / prevention & control; Hepatitis B Vaccines / therapeutic use; Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / prevention & control; Maternal-Child Health Services; Quality of Health Care


BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus birth dose (HepB-BD) vaccination is recommended to reduce mother to infant transmission. We evaluated the HepB-BD status of women who gave birth between 2011 and 2016 (N = 3,583) using the 2015-2016 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey. METHODS: Frequency distributions of HepB-BD vaccination across maternal and health system factors, concentration indices, and logistic regression models were used to estimate coverage, inequity, and factors associated with vaccination. RESULTS: The majority of participants were younger than 30 years of age, lived in rural areas, and were multiparous. Almost all received antenatal care (ANC), but only 43% received recommended ANC services, and 60% gave birth at home. The overall HepB-BD coverage rate was 26%. Vaccination coverage was higher in urban areas and was inequitably concentrated among children of more educated and wealthier women. HepB-BD coverage was also positively associated with receipt of ANC at non-governmental facilities, and delivery at a facility, skilled provider at birth and Cesarean delivery. After adjusting for sociodemographic and health system factors, receipt of the HepB-BD was positively associated with weekly media exposure, receipt of recommended ANC, and Cesarean delivery, and inversely associated with home delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Both socioeconomic and health systems factors influenced suboptimal and inequitable vaccination coverage. Improved access to quality ANC and delivery services may increase HepB-BD coverage although targeted approaches to reach home births are likely required to achieve national goals.


Global Health