Nasopharyngeal airway dual-transcriptome of infants with severe bronchiolitis and risk of childhood asthma: A multicenter prospective study
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
Bronchiolitis; asthma; dual-transcriptome; fatty acids; glycolysis; metabolome; microbiome; transcriptome
BACKGROUND: Severe bronchiolitis (ie, bronchiolitis requiring hospitalization) during infancy is a major risk factor for childhood asthma. However, the exact mechanism linking these common conditions remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the integrated role of airway microbiome (both taxonomy and function) and host response in asthma development in this high-risk population. METHODS: This multicenter prospective cohort study of 244 infants with severe bronchiolitis (median age, 3 months) examined the infants' nasopharyngeal metatranscriptomes (microbiomes) and transcriptomes (hosts), as well as metabolomes at hospitalization. The longitudinal relationships investigated include (1) major bacterial species (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis), (2) microbial function, and (3) host response with risks of developing asthma by age 6 years. RESULTS: First, the abundance of S pneumoniae was associated with greater risks of asthma (P = .01), particularly in infants with nonrhinovirus infection (P = .04). Second, of 328 microbial functional pathways that are differentially enriched by asthma development, the top pathways (eg, fatty acid and glycolysis pathways; false discovery rate [FDR] < 1 × 10) were driven by these 3 major species (eg, positive association of S pneumoniae with glycolysis; FDR < 0.001). These microbial functional pathways were validated with the parallel metabolome data. Third, 104 transcriptome pathways were differentially enriched (FDR < .05)-for example, downregulated interferon-α and -γ and upregulated T-cell activation pathways. S pneumoniae was associated with most differentially expressed transcripts (eg, DAGLB; FDR < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: By applying metatranscriptomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic approaches to a multicenter cohort of infants with bronchiolitis, this study found an interplay between major bacterial species, their function, and host response in the airway, and their longitudinal relationship with asthma development.
Zhu, Zhaozhong; Camargo, Carlos A.; Raita, Yoshihiko; Freishtat, Robert J.; Fujiogi, Michimasa; Hahn, Andrea; Mansbach, Jonathan M.; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; and Hasegawa, Kohei, "Nasopharyngeal airway dual-transcriptome of infants with severe bronchiolitis and risk of childhood asthma: A multicenter prospective study" (2022). GW Authored Works. Paper 750.