Title

Diet and Physical Activity as Determinants of Continuously Measured Glucose Levels in Persons at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

1-1-2022

Journal

Nutrients

Volume

14

Issue

2

DOI

10.3390/nu14020366

Keywords

Accelerometry; Dietary intake; Glucose monitor; Glucose variability; Mobile phone; Physical activity; Sedentary behavior

Abstract

We examined how dietary and physical activity behaviors influence fluctuations in blood glucose levels over a seven-day period in people at high risk for diabetes. Twenty-eight participants underwent a mixed meal tolerance test to assess glucose homeostasis at baseline. Subsequently, they wore an accelerometer to assess movement behaviors, recorded their dietary intakes through a mobile phone application, and wore a flash glucose monitoring device that measured glucose levels every 15 min for seven days. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations of metabolic and lifestyle risk factors with glycemic variability. Higher BMI, amount of body fat, and selected markers of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance from the meal tolerance test were associated with higher mean glucose levels during the seven days. Moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity and polyunsaturated fat intake were independently associated with less variation in glucose levels (CV%). Higher protein and polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes were associated with more time-in-range. In contrast, higher carbohydrate intake was associated with less time-in-range. Our findings suggest that dietary composition (a higher intake of polyunsaturated fat and protein and lower intake of carbohydrates) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity may reduce fluctuations in glucose levels in persons at high risk of diabetes.

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