Boston cognitive assessment (BOCA) - a comprehensive self-administered smartphone- and computer-based at-home test for longitudinal tracking of cognitive performance
Cognition; Cognitive testing; Dementia; Mild cognitive impairment; Telehealth
Longitudinal cognitive testing is essential for developing novel preventive interventions for dementia and Alzheimer's disease; however, the few available tools have significant practice effect and depend on an external evaluator. We developed a self-administered 10-min at-home test intended for longitudinal cognitive monitoring, Boston Cognitive Assessment or BOCA. The goal of this project was to validate BOCA. BOCA uses randomly selected non-repeating tasks to minimize practice effects. BOCA evaluates eight cognitive domains: 1) Memory/Immediate Recall, 2) Combinatorial Language Comprehension/Prefrontal Synthesis, 3) Visuospatial Reasoning/Mental rotation, 4) Executive function/Clock Test, 5) Attention, 6) Mental math, 7) Orientation, and 8) Memory/Delayed Recall. BOCA was administered to patients with cognitive impairment (n = 50) and age- and education-matched controls (n = 50). Test scores were significantly different between patients and controls (p < 0.001) suggesting good discriminative ability. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 implying good internal consistency. BOCA demonstrated strong correlation with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) (R = 0.90, p < 0.001). The study revealed strong (R = 0.94, p < 0.001) test-retest reliability of the total BOCA score one week after participants' initial administration. The practice effect tested by daily BOCA administration over 10 days was insignificant (β = 0.03, p = 0.68). The effect of the screen size tested by BOCA administration on a large computer screen and re-administration of the BOCA to the same participant on a smartphone was insignificant (β = 0.82, p = 0.17; positive β indicates greater score on a smartphone). BOCA has the potential to reduce the cost and improve the quality of longitudinal cognitive tracking essential for testing novel interventions designed to reduce or reverse cognitive aging. BOCA is available online gratis at www.bocatest.org .
Vyshedskiy, Andrey; Netson, Rebecca; Fridberg, Elisabeth; Jagadeesan, Priyanka; Arnold, Matthew; Barnett, Sophie; Gondalia, Anjali; Maslova, Victoria; de Torres, Lauren; Ostrovsky, Simone; Durakovic, Danijel; Savchenko, Andrei; McNett, Sienna; Kogan, Mikhail; Piryatinsky, Irene; and Gold, Dov, "Boston cognitive assessment (BOCA) - a comprehensive self-administered smartphone- and computer-based at-home test for longitudinal tracking of cognitive performance" (2022). GW Authored Works. Paper 587.