A longitudinal perspective of hormone replacement therapies (HRTs) on neuromotor capabilities in males with 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome)

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics




47,XXY; Early hormonal treatment (EHT); Hormone replacement therapy (HRT); Klinefelter syndrome; Neuromotor


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to delineate the effects of variable hormone replacement therapies on neuromotor function in a large cohort of males with 47,XXY from birth to adulthood. METHODS: A total of 270 participants aged 16 days to 17 years 11 months prenatally diagnosed with 47,XXY were assessed by their pediatric endocrinologist and were administered hormone replacement therapies accordingly. Infants and school-aged children with 47,XXY were administered neuromotor assessments during routine neurodevelopmental evaluations. For statistical analysis, participants were segregated on the basis of treatment status. Two-tailed t tests, 1-way analysis of variance, and post hoc analysis determined significant group differences on each assessment. RESULTS: In infants, the early hormonal treatment (EHT) group performed significantly better than the untreated group on fine motor and motor composite domains. In school-aged children, we observed significantly improved scores on fine motor control, coordination, agility, and strength domains among males treated with EHT (or any combination thereof) compared with those who did not receive early treatment. CONCLUSION: The highest treated combination group was associated with the highest neuromotor function, although the EHT group also often performed better than the other groups. This suggests EHT may be essential in promoting long-term optimal neuromotor outcome in males with an additional X.