In hospital outcomes of autologous and implant-based breast reconstruction in patients with diabetes mellitus: A population-based study of 2015-2020 national inpatient sample

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



World journal of surgery








autologous; breast reconstruction; diabetes mellitus; implant


BACKGROUND: Breast reconstruction encompasses autologous (ABR) and implant-based breast reconstruction (IBR) each with its own sets of potential complications. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with breast reconstruction complications, although most of the studies did not differentiate between the reconstruction procedures. This study conducted a population-based study examining impact of DM on inhospital outcomes in ABR and IBR. METHODS: Patients underwent ABR or IBR were identified in National Inpatient Sample from Q4 2015 to 2020. A 1:2 propensity score matching was used to address differences in demographics, hospital characteristics, primary payer status, comorbidities, and reconstruction staging between DM and non-DM patients. In hospital outcomes were assessed separately in ABR and IBR. RESULTS: There were 997 (7.68%) DM and 11,987 (92.32%) non-DM patients in ABR. Meanwhile, 1325 (7.38%) DM and 16,638 (92.62%) non-DM patients underwent IBR. DM cohorts in ABR and IBR were matched to 1930 and 2558 non-DM patients, respectively. After matching, DM patients in both ABR and IBR had higher risks of renal complications (ABR, 3.73% vs. 1.76%, p < 0.01; IBR, 1.83% vs. 0.78%, p = 0.01) and longer length of stay (ABR, p = 0.01; IBR, p = 0.04). In ABR, DM patients had higher respiratory complications (2.82% vs. 1.19%, p < 0.01), excessive scarring (2.72% vs. 1.55%, p = 0.03), and infection (2.42% vs. 1.14%, p = 0.01), while in IBR, DM patients had higher hemorrhage/hematoma (5.40% vs. 3.40%, p < 0.01) and transfer out (1.52% vs. 0.78%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: DM was associated with distinct sets of inhospital complications in ABR and IBR, which can be valuable for preoperative risk stratification and informing clinical decision-making for DM patients.