A National Observational Study From 2010 to 2021 of the Trends in the Timing of Hip Surgery in Children With Cerebral Palsy: Is Surgery Being Performed Earlier?

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Journal Article

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cerebral palsy (cp); hip dislocation; hip displacement; hip surveillance; surgical timing


Background Hip instability is a concern in pediatric cerebral palsy (CP) patients, with approximately one-third developing hip displacement. This may lead to pain, functional limitations, and decreased quality of life. Due to the progressive nature of hip displacement in CP, earlier surgical interventions may be beneficial. However, any shifts in practice to earlier surgical intervention, on a national scale, is not well described. The purpose of this study was to determine the recent trends in the surgical timing of hip interventions in children with CP. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using the PearlDiver Mariner all-payer claims database (PearlDiver Technologies, Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States). CP patients aged 10 years and younger were identified between 2010 and 2021. Hip surgeries including open reduction, adductor tenotomy, and pelvic osteotomy were identified. Patients were stratified by their age on the date of surgery and the year of the procedure. Linear regression analysis was conducted for temporal trends. Further, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) was calculated. Results A total of 309,677 CP patients were identified. For those aged one to four years old, the percentage undergoing hip surgery increased from 10.2% in 2010 to 19.4% in 2021. In the five- to 10-year-old age group, the surgery rate peaked at 14.9% in 2016 and steadily declined to 11.5% in 2021. The overall CAGR from 2010 to 2021 was +6.03% for the one- to four-year-old group and +0.88% for the five- to 10-year-old group. Linear regression demonstrated a significant association between year and the percentage of operations for patients ages one to four (R=0.792, p<0.001), but not ages five-10 (R=0.019, p=0.704). Conclusions Rates of surgical hip procedures in one- to four-year-old CP patients have been increasing since 2010, whereas the rate in five- to 10-year-old CP patients has been decreasing since 2016. Recently, CP patients may be undergoing hip surgery at younger ages.


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