Intrinsic Factors and Psychological Safety Among Nursing Students During Simulation-Based Learning-A Correlational Design

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Simulation in healthcare : journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare




INTRODUCTION: Well-designed simulation-based learning (SBL) experiences enhance students' self-confidence, self-efficacy, clinical judgment, and psychomotor skill development. An emerging concept in SBL research is psychological safety. There is currently no research on factors influencing psychological safety specifically related to the SBL environment, nor is there any literature found to determine whether intrinsic student characteristic, such as self-compassion and resilience, contributes to SBL learning outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between nursing students' intrinsic characteristics (self-compassion, resilience, and anxiety sensitivity) and their psychological safety. METHODS: Bivariate correlation was used to examine associations among sociodemographic variables and outcome variables. Multiple regression was used to determine the predictive nature of the sociodemographic variables. Assumptions for variables in multiple regression models were tested (normal distribution, heteroscedasticity, multicollinearity). All data were analyzed in SPSS, Version 28. The P value of significance was set at 0.05 for all analyses. RESULTS: Most of the 118 participants were non-Hispanic (89%), White (65%), and females (95%). Results of the demographic bivariate analysis revealed no significant differences among this diverse group or semester in the curriculum for psychological safety. The multiple regression found self-compassion (β = 29, P = 0.004), anxiety sensitivity (β = -0.16, P = 0.049), and resilience (β = 0.26, P = 0.004) predict psychological safety. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of creating a psychologically safe learning environment has been recognized as essential to best practices. Our findings suggest that an understanding of student characteristics that impact their perception of psychological safety will allow educators to develop strategies to better support learners in the simulation environment.


Nursing Faculty Publications