Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophils in pediatric myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Multiple sclerosis and related disorders






Biomarker; Cerebrospinal fluid; Eosinophils; MOGAD; Pediatric neuroimmunology


BACKGROUND: Eosinophils in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are an uncommon finding most often associated with parasitic infections, but have also been described in some neuroinflammatory disorders. Eosinophilic infiltration is not thought to be a typical feature of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD). We aim to describe the rate of CSF eosinophil positivity in a cohort of pediatric MOGAD patients. METHODS: Single-center retrospective chart review of pediatric MOGAD patients. Clinical and laboratory data was collected from the electronic medical record and analyzed. RESULTS: Of 46 pediatric patients with positive serum myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-IgG) identified, 38 patients fulfilling internationally proposed MOGAD diagnostic criteria were included for analysis. 6 patients with MOGAD were excluded as no CSF data was available, and 2 patients with positive MOG-IgG but diagnosis more consistent with MS were excluded. Median age was 7.3 years, and 19/38 (50 %) were female. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was the most common presenting phenotype (23/38, 61 %), and other phenotypes included optic neuritis (10/38, 26 %), transverse myelitis (3/38, 8 %), and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) (2/38, 5 %). 12 of 36 (33 %) patients with all lumbar puncture (LP) data available had CSF eosinophils present, with eosinophil mean of 3 % and range from 1 % to 18 % of CSF while blood cells. CONCLUSION: CSF eosinophils were present in one third of pediatric MOGAD patients, which is a higher rate than previously reported in either MOGAD or aquaporin-4 antibody positive NMOSD cohorts. Understanding the CSF composition of pediatric MOGAD patients helps to facilitate more prompt diagnosis and treatment and may shed light onto underlying pathologic mechanisms of disease with the goal to inform future therapeutic targets.