Telemedicine and Pediatric Care in Rural and Remote Areas of Middle-and-Low-Income Countries: Narrative Review

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of epidemiology and global health




LMIC; Pediatric; Rural Areas; Telemedicine; Under-5 Mortality and Neonatology


OBJECTIVES: Caring for children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) can be challenging. This review article aims to explore role of telemedicine in supporting pediatric care in LMIC. METHODOLOGY: A narrative review of existing English and Spanish literature was conducted to assess role of telemedicine to support pediatric care in LMIC. RESULTS: Beside medical education and direct pediatric care, telemedicine can provide sub-specialties consultations without extra burden on families. Additionally, telemedicine can help in lowering under-5 mortality by supporting neonatal care, infectious illnesses, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Telemedicine can be a gate for universal coverage for all children at a lower cost. For over a decade, it has been implemented successfully and sustained in a few LMIC. However, challenges in implementing telemedicine are enormous. Still, opportunities arise by using simpler technology, low-width band internet, smartphones, instant messaging applications and solar energy. COVID-19 pandemic facilitated acceptance and applicability of telemedicine worldwide including LMIC. Nevertheless, governments must regulate telemedicine by issuing policies and ensuring employment of local experts when possible to meet local resources and cultural competency. CONCLUSION: Telemedicine has proven successful in improving pediatrics care. Many LMIC should take advantage of this innovation to promote equity and access to high quality pediatric care.


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