Associations of Kidney Tubular Biomarkers With Incident Macroalbuminuria and Sustained Low eGFR in DCCT/EDIC

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Diabetes care




OBJECTIVE: Tubulointerstitial injury contributes to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) progression. We tested tubular biomarker associations with DKD development in type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a case-cohort study examining associations of tubular biomarkers, measured across seven time points spanning ∼30 years, with incident macroalbuminuria ("severely elevated albuminuria," urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) ≥300 mg/day) and sustained low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (persistent eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. Biomarkers included KIM-1 and sTNFR1 in serum/plasma, MCP-1 and EGF in urine, and a composite tubular secretion score reflecting secreted solute clearance. We assessed biomarkers using single values, as mean values from consecutive time points, and as change over consecutive time points, each as time-updated exposures. RESULTS: At baseline, mean diabetes duration was 5.9 years, with mean HbA1c 8.9%, eGFR 125 mL/min/1.73 m2, and AER 16 mg/day. There were 4.8 and 3.5 cases per 1,000 person-years of macroalbuminuria and low eGFR, respectively. Assessed according to single biomarker values, KIM-1 was associated with risk of subsequent macroalbuminuria and low eGFR (hazard ratio [HR] per 20% higher biomarker 1.11 [95% CI 1.06, 1.16] and 1.12 [1.04, 1.21], respectively) and sTNFR1 was associated with subsequent macroalbuminuria (1.14 [1.03, 1.25]). Mean KIM-1 and EGF-to-MCP-1 ratio were associated with subsequent low eGFR. In slope analyses, increases in KIM-1 and sTNFR1 were associated with subsequent macroalbuminuria (per 20% biomarker increase, HR 1.81 [1.40, 2.34] and 1.95 [1.18, 3.21]) and low eGFR (2.26 [1.65, 3.09] and 2.94 [1.39, 6.23]). CONCLUSIONS: Serial KIM-1 and sTNFR1 are associated with incident macroalbuminuria and sustained low eGFR in T1D.


Biostatistics and Bioinformatics