Racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to e-cigarette advertising among U.S. youth

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Public health






Advertising; E-cigarettes; Marketing; Racial/ethnic disparities


OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess exposure to e-cigarette advertising across multiple marketing channels among U.S. youth and to examine whether racial/ethnic disparities exist in exposure to e-cigarette advertisements. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were drawn from a longitudinal survey of participants recruited from two nationally representative panels (NORC's AmeriSpeak® and GfK's KnowledgePanel). A total of 2043 youth aged 13-17 completed the initial 2018 survey, and 2013 youth completed the follow-up survey in 2019 (including a replenishment sample of 690 youth). Outcome variables were self-reported e-cigarette advertisement exposure in the past three months through various sources, such as television, point of sale, and online/social media. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of the association between racial/ethnic identity and e-cigarette advertisement exposure. RESULTS: The prevalence of reported exposure to e-cigarette advertisements through any channel was 79.8% (95% CI: 77.1-82.2) in 2018 and 74.9% (95% CI: 72.5-77.1) in 2019, respectively. Point of sale was the most common source of e-cigarette advertisement exposure in both years. Non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic Asian youth were more likely to report exposure to e-cigarette advertisements through television (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.44-2.99 and AOR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.17-3.82, respectively) and online/social media (AOR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.11-2.33 and AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.10-3.59, respectively) channels compared with non-Hispanic White youth. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of U.S. youth reported exposure to e-cigarette advertising through a variety of marketing channels. Significant racial/ethnic disparities existed, with non-Hispanic Black and Asian youth reporting more marketing exposure than their non-Hispanic White counterparts.


Prevention and Community Health