In vitro effects of emicizumab on activated clotting time in blood samples from cardiac surgical patients

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia








Haemophilia A with inhibitors; activated clotting time; cardiopulmonary bypass; emicizumab


BACKGROUND: Heparin management in hemophilia A (HA) patients with a factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitor can be challenging due to severe activated clotting time (ACT) prolongations. It is important to better understand the impact of emicizumab, a FVIII mimetic on ACT, and tissue factor (TF)-based coagulation assays. METHODS: Whole blood from 18 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were mixed in vitro with pooled normal plasma, FVIII-deficient or FVIII-inhibitor plasma to affect functional FVIII levels. ACTs and heparin concentration by protamine titration were measured in whole blood mixture with/without emicizumab (50-100 μg/ml). Thrombin generation and plasmin generation were measured in the patient's plasma mixed with normal plasma or FVIII-inhibitor plasma to assess the impact of emicizumab under low TF activation. RESULTS: FVIII inhibitors prolonged ACTs by 2.2-fold compared to those in normal plasma mixture at baseline. During CPB, ACTs in normal plasma mixture, and FVIII-deficient mixture were in 400s, but ACTs reached 900s in FVIII-inhibitor mixture. Emicizumab shortened ACTs by up to 100s in normal plasma mixture, and FVIII-deficient mixtures. ACTs remained over 600s in FVIII-inhibitor mixture, despite adding emicizumab at 100 μg/ml. Heparin concentration measured by TF-based protamine titration was unaffected. Emicizumab enhanced thrombin peak in the presence of FVIII inhibitors, whereas plasmin generation was mainly affected by thrombin generation, and systemic use of ɛ-aminocaproic acid. CONCLUSIONS: FVIII inhibitors extensively prolong ACTs in heparinized whole blood, and clinical levels of emicizumab partially reverse ACT values. Protamine titration should be considered for optimal heparin monitoring in emicizumab-treated patients with FVIII inhibitors.


Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine