Orbital Fracture Characteristics and Outcomes in Baltimore

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



The Journal of craniofacial surgery




Fracture characteristics and postoperative outcomes of patients presenting with orbital fractures in Baltimore remain poorly investigated. The purpose of our study was to determine the fracture patterns, etiologies, and postoperative outcomes of patients treated for orbital fractures at 2 level I trauma centers in Baltimore. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients who underwent orbital fracture repair at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center and the Johns Hopkins Hospital from January 2015 to December 2019. Of 374 patients, 179 (47.9%) had orbital fractures due to violent trauma, 252 (67.4%) had moderate to near-total orbital fractures, 345 (92.2%) had orbital floor involvement, and 338 (90.4%) had concomitant neurological symptoms/signs. Almost half of the patients had at least one postoperative ocular symptom/sign [n = 163/333 (48.9%)]. Patients who had orbital fractures due to violent trauma were more likely to develop postoperative ocular symptoms/signs compared with those who had orbital fractures due to nonviolent trauma [n = 88/154 (57.1%), n = 75/179 (41.9%); P = 0.006]. After controlling for factors pertaining to injury severity, there was no significant difference in patient throughput or incidence of any postoperative ocular symptom/sign after repair between the two centers. Timely management of patients with orbital fractures due to violent trauma is crucial to mitigate the risk of postoperative ocular symptoms/signs.


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