Evaluating the association between longitudinal exposure to a PFAS mixture and adolescent cardiometabolic risk in the HOME Study

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Environmental epidemiology (Philadelphia, Pa.)








Adolescents; Cardiometabolic risk; Chemical mixture; Latent profile analysis; polyfluoroalkyl substances


BACKGROUND: Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) throughout gestation and childhood may impact cardiometabolic risk. METHODS: In 179 HOME Study participants (Cincinnati, OH; recruited 2003-2006), we used latent profile analysis to identify two distinct patterns of PFAS exposure from serum concentrations of four PFAS measured at birth and ages 3, 8, and 12 years. We assessed the homeostatic model of insulin resistance, triglycerides-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, systolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and hemoglobin A1c levels at age 12 years. We used multivariable linear regression to assess the association of membership in the longitudinal PFAS mixture exposure group with a summary measure of overall cardiometabolic risk and individual components. RESULTS: One PFAS exposure profile (n = 66, 39%) had higher geometric means of all PFAS across all visits than the other. Although adjusted associations were null in the full sample, child sex modified the association of longitudinal PFAS mixture exposure group with overall cardiometabolic risk, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, systolic blood pressure, and visceral fat (interaction term values: 0.02-0.08). Females in the higher exposure group had higher cardiometabolic risk scores (ß = 0.43; 95% CI = -0.08, 0.94), systolic blood pressures (ß = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.1, 1.1), and visceral fat (ß = 0.44; 95% CI = -0.13, 1.01); males had lower cardiometabolic risk scores (ß = -0.52; 95% CI = -1.06, -0.06), leptin-to-adiponectin ratios (ß = -0.7; 95% CI = -1.29, -0.1), systolic blood pressures (ß = -0.14; 95% CI = -0.7, 0.41), and visceral fat (ß = -0.52; 95% CI = -0.84, -0.19). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to this PFAS mixture throughout childhood may have sex-specific effects on adolescent cardiometabolic risk.


Environmental and Occupational Health