Predictors of Atrial Arrhythmia in Adults with Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Pediatric cardiology




Adult congenital heart disease; Atrial arrhythmia; Predictive model; Repaired tetralogy of fallot


Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease in adults, has excellent long-term survival. However, many patients (30-45%) develop late arrhythmias. Previous studies have identified predictors of arrhythmia (atrial or ventricular) using clinical markers that predate arrhythmia onset by many years. Our objective was to develop a predictive model for incident atrial arrhythmias within two years of clinical evaluation and diagnostic testing. A single-center nested unmatched case-control study of 174 adults with repaired TOF. We included only patients with results from ECG and echocardiogram data in the required time interval (3-24 months before first arrhythmia for cases; 24 months of follow-up for controls). A predictive multivariable model for risk of incident atrial arrhythmia was developed using logistic regression with a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Of 41 demographic, surgical, and diagnostic variables, six were selected as having predictive value for atrial arrhythmia based on cross validation. The factors with the greatest predictive value in decreasing order were moderate / severe tricuspid regurgitation (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 149.42), QRS fragmentation (OR 28.08), severe pulmonary regurgitation (OR 8.22), RV systolic dysfunction (OR 2.95), 1st degree AV block (OR 2.59), and age at time of surgical repair (OR 1.02). Predictors for atrial arrhythmia in our study suggested abnormal right ventricle anatomical function and electrophysiologic properties (conduction and repolarization) as the primary underlying substrate.