Disparity Among African Americans in Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Procedure: A National Inpatient Sample Analysis from 2015 to 2020

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Digestive diseases and sciences




African American; Disparity; Hepatic encephalopathy; Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt


BACKGROUND: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a procedure used to alleviate patients with chronic liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Racial disparities were present in TIPS where numerous studies suggested African American patients experience higher in-hospital mortality rates. However, the incidence of post-TIPS surgical complications, such as HE, has yet to be examined among African Americans. Therefore, this study aimed to provide a comprehensive examination of the disparities in TIPS procedures among African American patients. METHODS: The study compared African American and Caucasian patients who underwent TIPS procedures in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from the last quarter of 2015-2020 after ICD-10 change. Preoperative variables, including demographics, comorbidities, primary payer status, and hospital characteristics, were examined and multivariable analysis was used to assess outcomes correcting preoperative variables with p < 0.1. RESULTS: Compared to Caucasians, African Americans had higher in-hospital mortality (16.18 vs 8.22%, aOR 1.781, p < 0.01), hepatic encephalopathy (33.09 vs 27.44%, aOR 1.300, p = 0.05), and acute kidney injury (45.59 vs 29.60%, aOR 2.019, p < 0.01). Using the generalized linear model, African Americans have longer length of stay (11.04 ± 0.77 days vs 8.54 ± 0.16 days, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Despite a higher prevalence of cirrhosis, African Americans continue to have marked underrepresentation in TIPS procedures in recent years. Their underrepresentation, in conjunction with higher mortality, morbidity, and increased comorbidity conditions, could imply disparity in accessing care. This finding underscores the necessity for improved access to diagnostic and therapeutic services for African Americans with liver cirrhosis.