Preoperative hypocoagulative state is an independent risk factor for wound complications and infection in gender-affirming bottom surgeries

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS






Anticoagulant; Gender affirmation surgery; Hypocoagulative; Infection; Wound complication


BACKGROUND: Bottom gender affirmation surgery (GAS) involves the risks of bleeding and associated complications. Effective preoperative blood management is paramount across surgical disciplines with international normalized ratio (INR)≤1.5 advised prior to certain surgeries. This study aimed to examine the proportion of patients who were hypocoagulative before they underwent bottom GAS and assess the influence of hypocoagulability on their 30-day post-operative outcomes. METHOD: A retrospective study on female-to-male (FtM) and male-to-female (MtF) bottom GAS was performed based on American college of surgeons national surgical quality improvement program (ACS-NSQIP) database from 2005 to 2021. Patients with hypocoagulation were identified when PTT> 60 s, PT > 30 s, and/or INR> 2. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the 30-day perioperative outcomes between patients with hypocoagulation and controls. RESULTS: In this study, 380 patients (182 FtM, 198 MtF) with hypocoagulation and 1176 controls (886 FtM, 310 MtF) were included. Mortality and organ system complications were infrequent in both groups. Patients with hypocoagulation had higher wound complication rates (13.68% vs. 2.64%, aOR 2.858, p < 0.01), especially wound dehiscence (10.00% vs. 0.60%, aOR 4.424, p < 0.01) and organ space infection rates (2.11% vs. 0.26%, aOR 12.77, p < 0.01). Additionally, patients with hypocoagulation had higher sepsis (0.79% vs. 0.09%, aOR 15.508, p = 0.04) and readmission rates (4.74% vs. 2.47%, aOR 1.919, p = 0.03), but lower rates of discharge not to home (7.92% vs. 25.38%, aOR 0.324, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Preoperative hypocoagulative state is observed in approximately a quarter of the patients undergoing bottom GAS and is an independent risk factor for increased risks of 30-day wound complications and infections. Therefore, meticulous monitoring of preoperative hemostasis and implementing hemostasis control before surgery may be necessary. Thus, it may be advisable to discontinue oral anticoagulants before the surgery.


School of Medicine and Health Sciences Student Works