Hormone Replacement Therapy after Pubertal Induction in Adolescents and Young Adults with Turner Syndrome: A Survey Study

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Hormone research in paediatrics








Hormone replacement; Practice patterns; Survey; Turner syndrome


INTRODUCTION: Turner syndrome (TS) is associated with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) and most adolescents and young adults (AYA) with TS require treatment with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). International consensus guidelines are unclear on the optimal formulation and dosing for HRT after pubertal induction. This study assessed current HRT practice patterns of endocrinologists and gynecologists in North America. METHODS: Email listserv members of the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG) and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) were invited to complete a 19-question survey to assess HRT treatment preferences for the management of POI after completion of pubertal induction in AYA with TS. Descriptive analysis and multinomial logistic regression to predict factors associated with preferred HRT are presented. RESULTS: 155 providers (79% pediatric endocrinology, 17% pediatric gynecology) completed the survey. Although 87% (135) reported confidence in prescribing HRT, only half (51%, 79) were aware of published guidelines. Factors significantly associated with preferred HRT included specialty (p = 0.032) and number of patients with TS seen every 3 months (p = 0.024). Gynecologists were 4 times less likely than endocrinologists to prefer hormonal contraceptives and 4 times more likely to favor transdermal estradiol dose of 100 μg/day as compared to lower doses. CONCLUSION: Although most endocrinologists and gynecologists report confidence in prescribing HRT to AYA with TS after pubertal induction, there are clear differences in provider preferences based on specialty and higher volume of patients with TS in their practice. Additional studies on comparative effectiveness of the HRT regimens and evidence-based guidelines are necessary for AYA with TS.