External evaluation of the Dynamic Criticality Index: A machine learning model to predict future need for ICU care in hospitalized pediatric patients

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



PloS one








OBJECTIVE: To assess the single site performance of the Dynamic Criticality Index (CI-D) models developed from a multi-institutional database to predict future care. Secondarily, to assess future care-location predictions in a single institution when CI-D models are re-developed using single-site data with identical variables and modeling methods. Four CI-D models were assessed for predicting care locations >6-12 hours, >12-18 hours, >18-24 hours, and >24-30 hours in the future. DESIGN: Prognostic study comparing multi-institutional CI-D models' performance in a single-site electronic health record dataset to an institution-specific CI-D model developed using identical variables and modelling methods. The institution did not participate in the multi-institutional dataset. PARTICIPANTS: All pediatric inpatients admitted from January 1st 2018 -February 29th 2020 through the emergency department. MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURE(S): The main outcome was inpatient care in routine or ICU care locations. RESULTS: A total of 29,037 pediatric hospital admissions were included, with 5,563 (19.2%) admitted directly to the ICU, 869 (3.0%) transferred from routine to ICU care, and 5,023 (17.3%) transferred from ICU to routine care. Patients had a median [IQR] age 68 months (15-157), 47.5% were female and 43.4% were black. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for the multi-institutional CI-D models applied to a single-site test dataset was 0.493-0.545 and area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC) was 0.262-0.299. The single-site CI-D models applied to an independent single-site test dataset had an AUROC 0.906-0.944 and AUPRC range from 0.754-0.824. Accuracy at 0.95 sensitivity for those transferred from routine to ICU care was 72.6%-81.0%. Accuracy at 0.95 specificity was 58.2%-76.4% for patients who transferred from ICU to routine care. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Models developed from multi-institutional datasets and intended for application to individual institutions should be assessed locally and may benefit from re-development with site-specific data prior to deployment.