Cohort profile: the Pregnancy Risk Infant Surveillance and Measurement Alliance (PRISMA) - Pakistan

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



BMJ open








Community child health; Follow-Up Studies; PUBLIC HEALTH; Primary Health Care; Risk Factors


PURPOSE: Pakistan has disproportionately high maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is a lack of detailed, population-representative data to provide evidence for risk factors, morbidities and mortality among pregnant women and their newborns. The Pregnancy Risk, Infant Surveillance and Measurement Alliance (PRISMA) is a multicountry open cohort that aims to collect high-dimensional, standardised data across five South Asian and African countries for estimating risk and developing innovative strategies to optimise pregnancy outcomes for mothers and their newborns. This study presents the baseline maternal and neonatal characteristics of the Pakistan site occurring prior to the launch of a multisite, harmonised protocol. PARTICIPANTS: PRISMA Pakistan study is being conducted at two periurban field sites in Karachi, Pakistan. These sites have primary healthcare clinics where pregnant women and their newborns are followed during the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal periods up to 1 year after delivery. All encounters are captured electronically through a custom-built Android application. A total of 3731 pregnant women with a mean age of 26.6±5.8 years at the time of pregnancy with neonatal outcomes between January 2021 and August 2022 serve as a baseline for the PRISMA Pakistan study. FINDINGS TO DATE: In this cohort, live births accounted for the majority of pregnancy outcomes (92%, n=3478), followed by miscarriages/abortions (5.5%, n=205) and stillbirths (2.6%, n=98). Twenty-two per cent of women (n=786) delivered at home. One out of every four neonates was low birth weight (<2500 g), and one out of every five was preterm (gestational age <37 weeks). The maternal mortality rate was 172/100 000 pregnancies, the neonatal mortality rate was 52/1000 live births and the stillbirth rate was 27/1000 births. The three most common causes of neonatal deaths obtained through verbal autopsy were perinatal asphyxia (39.6%), preterm births (19.8%) and infections (12.6%). FUTURE PLANS: The PRISMA cohort will provide data-driven insights to prioritise and design interventions to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in low-resource regions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05904145.


Global Health